Contracultura, subcultura, underground, mainstream


La contracultura son los valores, tendencias y formas sociales que chocan con los establecidos dentro de una sociedad.

Se puede entender de dos formas:

  • Ofensiva contra la cultura dominante
  • Cultura «a la contra», al margen del mercado y de los medios de comunicación de masas (Underground)


  • el romanticismo (siglo XIX)
  • la bohemia (siglo XIX – actualidad)
  • la Generación Beat (1950 – 1960)
  • los movimientos contraculturales de los sesenta, influidos por la Generación Beat
  • el movimiento hippie en EEUU (1960 -1970 )
  • el movimiento punk (1980 – actualidad)
  • Otros: metaleros, cultura mod, hacking, movimiento grunge…

Cultura underground

Underground (subterráneo) es un término de origen inglés con el que se designa a los movimientos contraculturales que se consideran alternativos, paralelos, contrarios o ajenos a la cultura oficial (el mainstream).

Cultura mainstream

Cultura principal o mainstream (anglicismo que literalmente significa corriente principal), que se utiliza para designar los pensamientos, gustos o preferencias aceptados mayoritariamente en una sociedad.


«Subcultura» se usa en sociología, antropología y semiótica cultural para definir a un grupo de personas con un conjunto distintivo de comportamientos y creencias que les diferencia de la cultura dominante de la que forman parte.

La cultura puede formarse a partir de la edad, etnia o género de sus miembros. Las cualidades que determinan que una subcultura aparezca pueden ser estéticas, políticas, identidad sexual o una combinación de ellas. Las subculturas se definen a menudo por su oposición a los valores de la dominante a la que pertenecen, aunque esta definición no es universalmente aceptada, ya que no siempre se produce una oposición entre la subcultura y la cultura de una manera radical.

Otras definiciones:

Toda subcultura implica un sistema de normas y valores de cierta autonomía, aunque sin desligarse de la cultura global. Podemos hablar de la subcultura católica o gitana, de la subcultura juvenil o campesina, de la subcultura criminal o musical, ello no significa en absoluto anormalidad, agresividad o enfrentamiento a la sociedad, propios de la contracultura. (J. M. Yinger T. Roszak)

Subdivisión de la cultura nacional, compuesta de una combinación de situaciones sociales, tales como de status de clase, transfondo técnico, residencia regional, rural o urbana y afiliación religiosa, aunque formando en su combinación una unidad de funcionamiento dotada de un impacto integrado en los individuos participantes. (M. M. Gordon)

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